Received: Nov 19, 2021 Published: Dec 10, 2021
The Fisheries is an industry which rears or catches, processes and sells the them. In fisheries sense fish is not the one which has gills, fins and tail. The term fish includes the aquatic animals like fish, crab, shrimp, mollusks etc., Basically fisheries are classified into two types, the first one is the Inland fisheries and the other is Marine fisheries. Inland fisheries include Freshwater fisheries where fish are reared or captured from rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and reservoirs, the other type of freshwater fisheries is Brackish water fisheries which include sources like mangrove swamps, estuaries and lagoons. Marine water fisheries are the seawater ones. Examples of the Freshwater fisheries are Rohu – Labeo Rohita, Tor Tor – Mahseer, Kajuli – Ailia Coila, Rani – Pink Perch, Calbasu – Labeo Calbasu, Tengra – Mystus Tengara, Magur – Walking Catfish, Vaam – River Eel, Trout – Rainbow Trout. Examples of marine fish are Grass carp, Alaska Pollock, Nile tilapia, Whiteleg shrimp, Atlantic salmon, Milkfish.
These days fisheries became one of the popular industry providing good employment and serving the national economy. There are many reasons why the fisheries are to be maintained. Fish is a great source of Vitamin A and Vitamin D and fish meat totally fat free and has more protein content. In some cases larvivorous fish like Guppy, Gambusia are reared to kill the larva of mosquito to avoid the diseases. Fisheries maintain balance in the ecosystem, the conservation of the endangered species is also done.
The fishes like German Blue Ram, Glowlight Tetra, Tiger Barb are reared for aesthetic purpose. There are also many by-products of fish like fish oil, fish manure, leather, shagreen and isinglass which is has many uses.
Based on the management, the fisheries are again divided into two types. The first one is the Capture fisheries where the fish are caught from different sources like sea, lake, river, ponds etc., here there must not be any over-exploitation of fish, the required number are caught and remaining are left to maintain the further balance. The other type is Cultured fisheries, here the exotic or the selected range of fish are reared under the scientific conditions taking atmost care. They are usually reared in tanks or jheels. The number people based on the fisheries is high and it also has a great contribution to the National Income. The fisheries and the aquaculture industries are raising and thus maintaining the balance has also become important. There are many standards set by FAO regarding the capture, maintenance, processing and preservation of fish. The feed to be provided and the nets to be used by the fisherman are also suggested by them. The prices, analysis, development, the relations of different nations are also maintained by the FAO.
Some of the major problems being faced because of the fisheries are the pollution of the water bodies and exploitation of fish. Both of these will bring the issue in the demand and supply chain and there will be impact on the planet because of the marine pollution happening because of the fisheries.