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Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research

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Citations : 336

Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research received 336 citations as per google scholar report

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Commentary - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 11

Dual-level toxicity assessment of biodegradable pesticides to aquatic species
K.O. Achema*
Department of Mathematics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
*Correspondence: K.O. Achema, Department of Mathematics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, Email:

Received: Nov 01, 2022, Manuscript No. JAEFR-22-81164; Editor assigned: Nov 03, 2022, Pre QC No. JAEFR-22-81164 (PQ); Reviewed: Nov 17, 2022, QC No. JAEFR-22-81164; Revised: Nov 22, 2022, Manuscript No. JAEFR-22-81164 (R); Published: Nov 29, 2022, DOI: 10.3153/JAEFR.22.8.004

Citation: K.O. Achema. Dual-level toxicity assessment of biodegradable pesticides to aquatic species. J Aquacult Eng Fish Res. 2022; 8(11)


Aquatic animals, spend most or all of their lives in water. Many insects, such as mosquitoes, mayflies, dragonflies, and caddis flies, have aquatic larvae with winged adults. Aquatic animals can breathe air and extract oxygen from water through specialized organs called gills or directly through their skin. Natural environments and the animals that live in them can be classified as aquatic (water) or terrestrial (land). This designation is polymorphic. Aquatic animals mainly refer to animals that live in various forms of water, such as seas, seas, rivers, lakes and ponds. Examples of aquatic animals include fish, jellyfish, sharks, whales, squid, barnacles, sea otters, crocodiles, crabs, dolphins, eels, rays, and clams. Aquatic plants, on the other hand, are plants found in these habitats, such as water hyacinths, water lettuce, water ferns, duckweeds, water lilies, and aquatic grasses. And these habitats inhabited by aquatic flora and fauna are called aquatic habitats. Aquatic habitats are freshwater, saltwater, or brackish water. Organisms have morphological and anatomical adaptations that allow them to live and thrive in aquatic habitats. An aquatic animal that can move freely through water using fins, antennae, and other locomotory organs. Movements such as diving and swimming are examples of underwater locomotion. Aquatic animals live in water and adapt to their environment. Adaptation increases an organism's chances of survival. The swim bladder of various fish is an air-filled sac under the spine that helps them swim. Ectothermal organisms are organisms that change their body temperature in response to changes in water temperature. Subcutaneous fat helps regulate body temperature in aquatic organisms. Aquatic animals are a type of ectotherms that regulate their body temperature according to the environment. Their blood heat is equal to that of their surroundings, so these animals don't require any energy to maintain their body temperature. There’s no energy spent on fighting gravity because their body density is comparable to that of their surroundings. For looking for food, animals require extra features that require more energy. All the nutrients are dissolved in water, therefore the amount of time spent looking for food is reduced, which saves energy. These animals have high feed conversion efficiency, rapid expansion, and therefore the ability to immerse themselves in a multi-dimensional world. Usually, we ask these aquatic plants as ‘submerged macrophytes’. It’s essential to learn their importance. Though they'll not be seen in our daily lives, nonetheless, they carry great importance. They’re quite an essential part of the aquatic ecosystem. Furthermore, they supply oxygen to the animal species living underwater. It’s very important for their metabolic processes. Moreover, they also supply food to a number of the species of animals living underwater. As an example, the turtles eat the algae present in freshwater pond surfaces. While some remain underwater, a number of the aquatic plants float above the surface of freshwater. Their stems and roots allow them to stay firmly affixed despite strong currents. As an example, moss clings on to rocks. It doesn't matter if they are terrestrial plants or aquatic, all of them need sunlight, soil, water and gases for surviving. Photosynthesis helps the plants in preparing food. Moreover, the soil helps in holding their roots. The terrestrial plants need CO2 to power the process of photosynthesis. They create do with dissolved Carbon Dioxide that is present in the water. Finally, water is extremely essential to complete this process of photosynthesis.



Conflict of Interest

The author declares there is no conflict of interest in publishing this article.