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Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research

Short Communication - (2023) Volume 9, Issue 2

Global trends on reef fish's ecology of fear: Flight initiation distance for conservation
V.A. Braithwaite*
Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Penn State, USA
*Correspondence: V.A. Braithwaite, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Penn State, USA, Email:

Received: Jan 02, 2023, Manuscript No. JAEFR-23-88283; Editor assigned: Jan 04, 2023, Pre QC No. JAEFR-23-88283 (PQ); Reviewed: Jan 18, 2023, QC No. JAEFR-23-88283; Revised: Jan 23, 2023, Manuscript No. JAEFR-23-88283 (R); Published: Jan 30, 2023, DOI: 10.3153/JAEFR.09.02.012

Citation: V.A. Braithwaite. Global trends on reef fish’s ecology of fear: Flight initiation distance for conservation. J Aquacult Eng Fish Res. 2023; 09(02).


A fish is an aquatic or marine animal with vertebrae. All fish have vertebrae, except sharks and rays, which have cartilage [1]. They usually have gills and fin-like appendages in the adult stage. Fish also include jawless vertebrates such as lampreys and hagfish [2]. Teleosts have well-developed jaws made up of real bone rather than cartilage. Fish are very diverse in appearance, size and shape. All this depends on the environment in which they live. Fish occupy nearly every aquatic habitat imaginable. Describing the ocean is difficult because there are many words used to describe land and water realms [3]. These habitats are defined by the creatures that inhabit them. Imagine a column of water. This is the pelagic (water not connected to land) region of the ocean. Geographic zoning defines coastlines and submerged land. Scientists use these words to identify animals that live in the substrate (land). There are other terms for geographic zones related to continents and underwater lands [4]. Continental margins lie between the mainland and the ocean floor. It is the submerged part of the continent, forming a transition zone between the continent and the ocean basin [5]. Continental margins include coasts (also called coastal zones), continental shelves, continental slopes, and continental uplift. Continental upheaval ends where the abyssal plain begins.


The deepest part of the ocean is in the rift or hadar area. Many fish are endangered, including great white sharks, most killifish, sturgeon and paddlefish of all species [5]. That is, they are being harvested beyond their ability to sustain a particular population, are being harvested to their limits, or are recovering from overfishing. One-third of the world's fish catch is bycatch, meaning fish that are accidentally caught and discarded as waste [3]. Coastal fisheries are vulnerable to pollution and habitat destruction. Exotic fish have been introduced, often displacing or threatening native fish populations. A dam that prevents adults from reaching spawning grounds hinders population reproduction [1]. The main food we take from the sea is fish. They are mainly caught in waters above the continental shelf. The water there is rich in phytoplankton. Phytoplanktons are the basis of most marine food chains. Some areas near the coast look like natural fish farms [4]. This is due to natural buoyancy lifting the nutrients needed for phytoplankton growth from the seafloor. Today, fish populations are heavily influenced by human fishing. Nearly one-third of all net-sized fish are caught [2]. Currently, laws protect some vulnerable fish populations, while other laws limit the number of fish that can be caught without destroying ocean populations.


The aquatic environment can be divided into geographical zones and living areas inhabited by organisms. Sustainable fishing is essential as our oceans and oceans are threatened by overfishing and consumption of sub-minimum specimens. For example, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) states in its Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, “States and users of aquatic resources must conserve ecosystems. It includes the obligation to fish responsibly to ensure effective conservation and management.” In this sense, sustainable fisheries refers to the conservation of marine populations through appropriate levels of activity. We will consider conservation and respect the natural environment.



Conflict of Interest

The author declares there is no conflict of interest in publishing this article.